February 1, 2013

Starting and Stopping

This note is about various ways to express starting or stopping in Hindi.

जैसे ही बारिश होने लगी वैसे ही हम क्रिकेट खेलना बंद करके अन्दर लौटे – “As soon as it started raining, we stopped playing cricket and went back inside”

Starting

There are several idioms in Hindi for expressing the beginning of a thing or action.

शुरू

The noun शुरू (“beginning”) is used in a conjunct verb. When used transitively, it is used with करना, and when used intransitively, it is used with होना. It can be used with a infinitive also to express an action that is stopped.

Examples

उसने माफ़ी मांगने से अपना बयान शुरू किया – “He began his testimony by asking for forgiveness”

मूवी एक मिनट पहेले शुरू हुई – “The movie started one minute ago”

मैंने चार बजे से काम करना शुरू किया – “I started working at 4 o’clock”

 Oblique Infinitive + लगना

The masculine singular oblique infinitive (i.e., ending in “-ने“) can be used with a form of लगना to express the beginning of an action. It can be used transitively and intransitively, depending on the infinitive and the subject of the verb.

Examples

मैं एक साल पहले हिंदी सिखने लगा – “I started learning Hindi one year ago”

पेट का दर्द कम होने लगा है – “(My) stomach pain has started to decrease”

The song title “तेरा होने लगा हूं” means “I have begun to be yours”.

शुरुआत

The noun शुरुआत (“beginning”) is also used in a conjunct verb.

मैंने काम की शुरुआत की – “I began the work”

Note that it is a feminine noun.

Stopping

Hindi has various idioms for expressing the end of an action.

बंद

The adjective बंद (“closed” / “shut”) is used in conjunct verbs to express the stopping of an action.

डॉक्टर ने उसको सिगरेट पीना बंद करने को कहा – “The doctor told him to quit smoking cigarettes”

क्या अभी तक बारिश बंद हुई – “Has it stopped raining yet?”

इस शब्द का प्रयोग होना बंद हो गया है – “This word has ceased to be used”

ख़त्म

The noun ख़त्म (“end”) is used in conjunct verbs to express the end of an action. It is not used with infinitives.

मैं पांच बजे तक अपना काम ख़त्म करने की कोशिश करूंगा – “I’ll try to finish my work by 5 o’clock”

खेल कब ख़त्म हुआ – “When did the game finish?”