The voice of a verb refers to the relationship of the subject of the verb and the action of the verb.
The subject of an active verb performs the action of the verb.
For instance, in the sentence “He threw the ball”, “he” is the subject of the verb “thew”, and the subject performs the action of the verb (the throwing).
The subject of a passive verb receives the action of the verb.
For instance, in the sentence “The ball was thrown by him”, “ball” is the subject, and the subject receives the action of the verb.
The Active Voice in Hindi
Most of the verbs discussed in other articles have been active verbs. There is no special structure for active verbs. However, there is a unique structure of all passive verbs.
The Passive Voice in Hindi
Passive verbs in Hindi are formed by appending an inflected form of the verb जाना to the perfect participial form of the main verb. The structure is therefore as follows:
[perfect participle of main verb] [inflected form of जाना]
Like all verbs, जाना inflects according to person, number, gender, tense, etc. The perfect participle also agrees with the subject in gender and number.
गेंद फेंका जायेगा – “The ball will be thrown”
खिड़कियाँ खुली गयीं थीं – “The windows had been opened”
Refer to the section on the Hindi passive voice for more detail.
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