December 3, 2012

जाना

Form

जाना inflects regularly, but the perfect participle is गया / गए / गयी.

Although जाना is an intransitive verb, it can be used in the passive voice. When used this way, its perfect participle form is जाया / जाये / जायी, for instance: उसको इलाज के लिए अस्पताल ले जाया गया है (“He was taken to the hospital” – compound verb ले जाना in the passive voice).

Usage

The Hindi verb जाना has a variety of usages.

“To go”

When used as a primary verb, जाना means “to go”.

हम पिछले साल दिल्ली गए थे (We went to Delhi last year)

Compound Verb

जाना is very commonly used in conjunct verbs. It often indicates completion or a change of state.

वह सो गयी – “She went to sleep”

See the article about compound verbs for more information.

Passive Voice

जाना is used to form the passive voice in Hindi.

हिंदी उत्तर भारत में बोली जाती है “Hindi is spoken in north India”.

See the article about the passive voice for more information.

Intensive Compound Verbs

जाना is used to form an intensive compound verb form. Unlike most compound verb forms, the main verb is inflected (i.e., the perfect participle of the main verb is used). This exhibits a form similar to the passive voice, but its usage is different.

[inflected perfect participle of the main verb] [form of जाना]

Such compound verb constructions generally indicate a gradual progression (toward a goal or point, etc).

पानी उबला जा रहा है – The water is boiling.

Imperfective Participle + जाना

The imperfective participle + जाना indicates a continued progression:

आबादी बढ़ती जा रही है – The population is continually increasing.