April 20, 2012

Present Habitual

Introduction

The present habitual form of a verb is formed by combining an imperfective participle of the verb with a present indicative form of the verb होना:

[imperfective participle of verb] [present tense form of होना]

The imperfective participle agrees with its subject in number and gender. The present tense form of होना also agrees with its subject in person and number (but incidentally not in gender, since the present tense forms of होना do not inflect according to gender).

The following table summarizes the present habitual forms of the verb जाना (“to go”):

Pronoun Masculine Form Feminine Form
मैं जाता हूँ जाती हूँ
हम जाते हैं जाती हैं
आप जाते हैं जाती हैं
तुम जाते हो जाती हो
तू जाता है जाती है
यह/वह जाता है जाती है
ये/वे जाते हैं जाती हैं

This verb form combines the present tense and habitual aspect.

The present tense refers to the present time.

The habitual aspect refers to actions which are habitual or repeated over time. The present habitual form of a verb is used to make general statements also.

There are several idiomatic usages of this verb form which are neither related to the present tense nor the habitual aspect.

Examples

मेरी बहिन मुंबई में रहती है – “My sister lives in Mumbai”

मैं रोज़ सुबह चाय पीता हूँ – “I drink tea every morning”

मैं तबला बजाता हूँ – “I play the tabla”

ये लड़कियां स्कूल जाती हैं – “These girls go to school”

मुझे हिंदी आती है – “I understand Hindi”

क्या आपको गर्म मौसम अच्छा लगता है – “Do you like hot weather?”

Idiomatic Usages

There are several idiomatic usages of the imperfective participle + present tense form of होना construction.

Hortatory Usage

the imperfective participle + present tense form of होना is used for exhortations. When used in this manner, it is always third person and plural.

जाते हैं – “Let’s go”

खाते हैं – “Let’s eat”

Imminent Action

The imperfective participle + present tense form of होना is often used to express imminent action.

चलती हूँ – “I’m going” / “I’m going right now” / “I’m just about to go” / etc.

निकलते हैं – “We’re just about to leave” / “We are leaving right now” / etc.

आता हूँ – “I’m coming” / “I am about to come right now” / etc.